Adaptation of alternative pulse and oilseed crops to the semiarid Canadian Prairie: seed yield and water use efficiency.

Book Title: NA
Year Published: 2008
Month Published: NA
Author: Angadi, S. V. ; McConkey, B. G. ; Cutforth, H. W. ; Miller, P. R. ; Ulrich, D. ; Selles, F. ; Volkmar, K. M. ; Entz,M. H. ; Brandt, S. A.
Book Group Author: NA

Diversification and intensification of the cropping systems in the traditional wheat-fallow area of the semiarid Canadian prairie is necessary to improve sustainability. Selection of alternate crops to include in cropping systems requires information on production risks with different climate regimes. To understand water use/yield relationships of alternate crops, three pulse crops (leguminous grain crops) [chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.) and lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)], three oilseed crops [canola (Brassica napus L. and B. rapa L.) and mustard (B. juncea L.)], and one cereal crop [wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)] were studied under varying water regimes: during 1996-1998 under well-watered, rainfed, imposed drought conditions, and in 2001 under rainfed conditions. Generally, the relative ranking between crops for water use was maintained across water regimes, such that the crops separated into three general groups of water users (high: wheat, B. napus, mustard; medium: chickpea, B. rapa, lentil; low: pea) with pea using an average of 34 mm and 13 mm less water than high- and medium-water-using crop groups, respectively. The exceptions included desi chickpea, which tended to use less water and B. rapa, which tended to use more water relative to the other crops as water use decreased. Generally, pea and wheat produced the most grain and biomass, had the highest water use efficiency, and had moderately high to high harvest indices. Wheat and pea are well adapted to variable rainfall amounts inherent in semiarid climates. Desi chickpea and lentil produce good grain yields under dry conditions, and grain yields relative to those of other crops can be increased by some drought stress, especially mid- to late-season stress. Therefore, because of their relatively good performance under water-stressed conditions, they are also well adapted to semiarid climates. Conversely, the Brassica oilseeds yielded relatively poorly compared with wheat and pulse crops under severe water-stressed conditions, so they are not as well adapted to the semiarid climate. In 2001, grain yield of wheat and pulses seeded on stubble was ≥30% of the yield on fallow, whereas stubble-seeded Brassica oilseeds yielded only about 10% of that on fallow. Compared with stubble seeding, production of Brassica oilseeds on fallow will decrease the risk of very low yields under drought. We found little indication that mustard was more drought tolerant than B. napus.

Pages: 425 - 438
Volume: 88
Number: 3
Journal: Canadian Journal of Plant Science
Journal ISO: NA
Organization: NA
Publisher: NA
ISSN: 0008-4220

arid lands, chickpeas, crop yield, drought, grasslands,harvest index, Indian mustard, lentils, peas, plant water relations,rape, seeds, semiarid grasslands, semiarid zones, water stress, wateruse efficiency, wheat, Canada, Brassica campestris, Brassica juncea,Brassica napus, Brassica napus var. oleifera, Cicer arietinum, Lensculinaris, Pisum sativum, Triticum, Triticum aestivum, Brassica,Brassicaceae, Capparidales, dicotyledons, angiosperms, Spermatophyta,plants, eukaryotes, North America, America, Developed Countries,Commonwealth of Nations, OECD Countries, Cicer, Papilionoideae,Fabaceae, Fabales, Lens, Pisum, Triticum, Poaceae, Cyperales,monocotyledons, Brassica napus, canola, Capparales, oilseed rape, pea,Field Crops (FF005) (New March 2000), Plant Water Relations (FF062),Plant Production (FF100), Environmental Tolerance of Plants (FF900)

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