An EGSnrc Monte Carlo study of the microionization chamber for reference dosimetry of narrow irregular IMRT beamlets

Book Title: NA
Year Published: 2004
Month Published: SEP
Author: Capote, R ; Sanchez-Doblaclo, F ; Leal, A ; Lagares, JI ; Arrans, R ; Hartmann, GH
Book Group Author: NA

Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has evolved toward the use of many small radiation fields, or ``beamlets,{''} to increase the resolution of the intensity map. The size of smaller beamlets can be typically about 1-5 cm(2). Therefore small ionization chambers (IC) with sensitive volumes less than or equal to0.1 cm(3) are generally used for dose verification of IMRT treatment. The dosimetry of these narrow photon beams pertains to the so-called nonreference conditions for beam calibration. The use of ion chambers for such narrow beams remains questionable due to the lack of electron equilibrium in most of the field. The present contribution aims to estimate, by the Monte Carlo (MC) method, the total correction needed to convert the IBA-Wellhofer NAC007 micro IC measured charge in such radiation field to the absolute dose to water. Detailed geometrical simulation of the microionization chamber was performed. The ion chamber was always positioned at a 10 cm depth in water, parallel to the beam axis. The delivered doses to air and water cavity were calculated using the CAVRZ EGSnrc user code. The 6 MV phase-spaces for Primus Clinac (Siemens) used as an input to the CAVRZnrc code were derived by BEAM/EGS4 modeling of the treatment head of the machine along with the multileaf collimator [Sanchez-Doblado et al., Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2081-2099 (2003)] and contrasted with experimental measurements. Dose calculations were carried out for two irradiation geometries, namely, the reference 10X10 cm(2) field and an irregular (similar to2X2 cm(2)) IMRT beamlet. The dose measured by the ion chamber is estimated by MC simulation as a dose averaged over the air cavity inside the ion-chamber (Dair). The absorbed dose to water is derived as the dose deposited inside the same volume, in the same geometrical position, filled and surrounded by water (D-water) in the absence of the ionization chamber. Therefore, the Dwawr/Dair dose ratio is a MC direct estimation of the total correction factor needed to convert the absorbed dose in air to absorbed dose to water. The dose ratio was calculated for several chamber positions, starting from the penumbra region around the beamlet along the two diagonals crossing the radiation field. For this quantity from 0 up to a 3% difference is observed between the dose ratio values obtained within the small irregular IMRT beamlet in comparison with the dose ratio derived for the reference 10 X 10 cm(2) field. Greater differences from the reference value up to 9% were obtained in the penumbra region of the small IMRT beamlet. (C) 2004 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

Pages: 2416-2422
Volume: 31
Number: 9
Journal ISO: Med. Phys.
Organization: ESTRO
ISSN: 0094-2405
DOI: 10.1118/1.1767691

IMRT dosimetry; Monte Carlo; small beam; reference dosimetry; absolute dosimetry

Source: Web of Science
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