|Book Title:||TOXICITY REDUCTION AND TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATIONS FOR EFFLUENTS, AMBIENT WATERS, AND OTHER AQUEOUS MEDIA|
|Author:||Goodfellow, WL ; McCulloch, W|
|Book Group Author:||NA|
When an effluent has been observed to be unacceptably toxic as part of the NPDES permitting process, a Toxicity Reduction Evaluation (TRE) is often required. A major tool for implementing a TRE is the Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE). Since toxicity of the effluent is necessary for performance of a TIE, the degree and consistency of the observed toxicity is a critical factor in the degree of success of the TIE and overall TRE. In an effort to evaluate the success of TIEs, the authors evaluated 89 TREs performed between 1986 and 2002, representing acute and chronic toxicity with freshwater, estuarine, and marine discharges. The objective of this review was to develop information as to the minimal acute and chronic toxicity necessary for an effective TIE and to develop and identify relationships between various factors and the potential success of the TIE. Impacts of factors such as toxicity strength, consistency or frequency of toxicity signal, acute versus chronic toxicity, and whether the facility is a municipality or industry were reviewed from each of the 89 TREs performed by EA Engineering, Science, and Technology (EA) during a 17 y period. An evaluation of TIEs performed through 1998 was previously presented as a poster at the SETAC 18th Annual Meeting in Charlotte, North Carolina. This case study presents the evaluation brought up to date through 2002. Additionally, this case study presents several recommendations and steps important to increasing the probability for a successful TIE.
toxicity identification evaluation; acute toxicity; chronic toxicity; TIE success
|Source:||Web of Science|