|Book Title:||TOXICITY REDUCTION AND TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATIONS FOR EFFLUENTS, AMBIENT WATERS, AND OTHER AQUEOUS MEDIA|
|Book Group Author:||NA|
Acute (48-h) toxicity had historically been present in the facility's final effluent. Although the effluent was not toxic to the fathead minnow, it was at times toxic to Ceriodaphnia duhia, the other National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit test species. The facility's whole effluent toxicity (WET) limit was LC50 63% effluent (1.59 TUa). High effluent levels of calcium, chloride, fluoride, potassium, sodium, and sulfate were known to be present. A literature review of the toxicity of these salts and other effluent constituents, primarily heavy metals, indicated the likely presence of total dissolved solids (TDS) toxicity to the invertebrate, C duhia. Species sensitivity testing, use of the salinity toxicity relationship (STR) model, effluent resynthesis, and determining and monitoring acute to chronic ratios (ACRs) identified calcium and chloride as the primary cause of WET.
TDS; calcium; chloride; Ceriodaphnia; species sensitivity patterning; weight of evidence
|Source:||Web of Science|