|Author:||Wang, FaHong ; Wang, XuQing ; Sayre, K.|
|Book Group Author:||NA|
China is the most populous nation and largest food producer and consumer in the world. In terms of planted area and output, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (including both winter and spring habit wheat) is the number one crop in northern China, and currently almost all irrigated wheat is conventionally planted in narrow spaced rows on the flat and is irrigated by flood irrigation within bordered basins. Conventional flat planting for winter wheat has some disadvantages. The use of flood irrigation can result in a low potential irrigation water use efficiency and inefficient use of nitrogen. It can also cause crusting of the soil surface following irrigation and can contribute to the degradation of some soil properties. In addition, it can result in higher levels of crop lodging. A raised bed-planting system with a number of defined rows (usually two to four rows) planted on top of the bed with furrow irrigation was found to overcome these disadvantages. The benefits of the raised bed-planting system with furrow irrigation compared with conventional flat planting with flood irrigation were found as follows: first, there was a savings in some years of as much as 30% of applied irrigation water combined with enhanced water use efficiency by changing from flood to furrow irrigation; second, the crust problem on the soil surface was eliminated and soil physical status was greatly improved; third, nitrogen use efficiency could be improved by 10% or more because of improved nitrogen placement possibilities; fourth, the microclimate within the field was changed due to the orientation of the wheat plants in rows on the beds with the bed-planting system, which reduced crop lodging and decreased the incidence of some wheat diseases. These advantages, interacting together, were found to improve grain quality and increase grain yield by more than 10%.
|Pages:||35 - 42|
|Journal:||Field Crops Research|
crop quality, crop yield, flood irrigation, furrowirrigation, irrigation water, lodging, microclimate, nitrogen, nitrogenfertilizers, plant diseases, plant nutrition, plant pathogens, plantwater relations, raised beds, soil physical properties, water use, wateruse efficiency, wheat, winter wheat, China, Shandong, Triticum, Triticumaestivum, Triticum, Poaceae, Cyperales, monocotyledons, angiosperms,Spermatophyta, plants, eukaryotes, East Asia, Asia, DevelopingCountries, Northern China, China, physical properties of soil,phytopathogens, Shantung, Field Crops (FF005) (New March 2000), PlantPhysiology and Biochemistry (FF060), Plant Nutrition (FF061), PlantProduction (FF100), Plant Cropping Systems (FF150), Viral, Bacterial andFungal Diseases of Plants (FF610) (New March 2000), Plant Disorders andInjuries (Not caused directly by Organisms) (FF700), Fertilizers andother Amendments (JJ700), Soil Water Management (Irrigation andDrainage) (JJ800) (Revised June 2002) [formerly So