Cost of reclaimed municipal wastewater for applications in seasonally stressed semi-arid regions.

Book Title: NA
Year Published: 2005
Month Published: NA
Author: Gonzalez-Serrano, E. ; Rodriguez-Mirasol, J. ; Cordero, T. ; Koussis, A. D. ; Rodriguez, J. J.
Book Group Author: NA

The effectiveness and the cost of waste water treatment options appropriate for different uses of reclaimed water in seasonally stressed regions are evaluated. Data are for applications in locales of the semi-arid regions of the Mediterranean rim and islands, e.g., the Aegean Islands of Greece, Cyprus, Costa del Sol and Israel, or in the Canary Islands. These regions experience water demand stresses mainly from seasonally intense tourism and agriculture. With precipitation-derived resources fixed, recycled treated waste water is a non-traditional, potentially cost-effective alternative water source that can be secured to meet certain demands. Different levels of waste water treatment have been studied, Ti, satisfying effluent quality standards corresponding to four final effluent destinations: T1, for a sea outfall or surface waters (zero-alternative, for comparison); T2, for irrigation (USEPA guidelines); T3, for aquifer recharge by infiltration from spreading fields (guidelines of the California Department of Health Services) and T4, for aquifer recharge by direct injection (USA Drinking Water Standards). The result is a set of cost functions for investment and for operation and maintenance developed based on the technical design and the cost estimation of the unit processes and operations of the studied waste water treatment plant.

Pages: 355 - 369
Volume: 54
Number: 6
Journal: Aqua - Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology
Journal ISO: NA
Organization: NA
Publisher: NA
ISSN: 1606-9935

agriculture, aquifers, cost analysis, demand, groundwaterrecharge, infiltration, investment, irrigation, precipitation, semiaridzones, surface water, tourism, waste water, waste water treatment, waterquality, water reuse, water stress, Cyprus, Greece, Israel,Mediterranean Region, Spain, West Asia, Asia, Mediterranean Region,Middle East, Developing Countries, Threshold Countries, Commonwealth ofNations, Southern Europe, Europe, Developed Countries, European UnionCountries, OECD Countries, waste water treatment plants, NaturalResource Economics (EE115) (New March 2000), Soil Water Management(Irrigation and Drainage) (JJ800) (Revised June 2002) [formerly SoilWater Management], Water Resources (PP200), Meteorology and Climate(PP500), Tourism and Travel (UU700), Human Wastes and Refuse (XX300)

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