|Author:||Granero, D. ; Perez-Calatayud, J. ; Gimeno, J. ; Ballester, F. ; Casal, E. ; Crispin, V. ; Van der Laarse, R.|
|Book Group Author:||NA|
The purposes of this study are: (i) to design field flattening filters for the Leipzig applicators of 2 and 3 cm of inner diameter with the source traveling parallel to the applicator contact surface, which are accessories of the microSelectron-HDR afterloader (Nucletron, Veenendaal, The Netherlands). These filters, made of tungsten, aim to flatten the heterogeneous dose distribution obtained with the Leipzig applicators. (ii) To estimate the dose rate distributions for these Leipzig+filter applicators by means of the Monte Carlo (MC) method. (iii) To experimentally verify these distributions for prototypes of these new applicators, and (iv) to obtain the correspondence factors to measure the output of the applicators by the user using an insert into a well chamber The MC GEANT4 code has been used to design the filters and to obtain the dose rate distributions in liquid water for the two Leipzig+filter applicators. In order to validate this specific application and to guarantee that realistic source-applicator geometry has been considered, an experimental verification procedure was implemented in this study, in accordance with the updated recommendations of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group No. 43 U1-Report. Thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiochromic film, and a pin-point ionization chamber in a plastic [polymethy-methacrylate (PMMA)] phantom were used to verify the MC results for the two applicators of a microSelectron-HDR afterloader with the mHDR-v2 source. To verify the output of the Leipzig +filter applicators, correspondence factors were deduced for the well chambers HDR100-plus (Standard Imaging, Inc., Middleton, WI) and TM33004 (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) using a specific insert for both applicators. The doses measured in the PMMA phantom agree within experimental uncertainties with the dose obtained by the MC calculations. Percentage depth dose and off-axis profiles were obtained normalized at a depth of 3 mm along the central applicator axis in a cylindrical 20 X 20 cm water phantom. A table of output factors, normalized to I U of source air kerma strength at this depth, is presented. Correspondence factors were obtained for the two well chambers considered. The matrix data obtained in the MC simulation with a grid separation of 0.5 mm has been used to build a data set in a convenient format to model these distributions for routine use with a brachytherapy -treatment planning system. (C) 2008 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
|Journal ISO:||Med. Phys.|
|Publisher:||AMER ASSOC PHYSICISTS MEDICINE AMER INST PHYSICS|
skin applicator; HDR; dosimetry; Monte Carlo; brachytherapy
|Source:||Web of Science|