|Author:||Ella, V. B. ; Reyes, M. R. ; Yoder, R.|
|Book Group Author:||NA|
Assessment of the effect of topography and operating heads on the water distribution uniformity in drip irrigation systems is important in irrigation water management and could serve as the basis for optimizing water use efficiency and crop productivity. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of hydraulic head and slope on the water distribution uniformity of a low-cost drip irrigation system developed by the International Development Enterprises (IDE), a non-profit organization dedicated to ending poverty in the developing world. The drip system was tested in the laboratory for water distribution uniformity under varying system heads and slope conditions. A drum reservoir served as water supply for the IDE drip system. A sub-main of 10 m with adjustable slope and lateral-sub holder of 10 m were fabricated to enable slope variations during laboratory experiments. The drip system was operated at pre-specified operating heads of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 m for sub-main slopes of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% and 0% slope for the laterals. The discharge in each emitter was monitored for each chosen slope through direct volumetric measurements. The water distribution uniformity was then evaluated using the Christiansen's method and Merriam and Keller's method. Mathematical relationships were developed to characterize the effect of slope and head on uniformity coefficient. We found that the coefficient of uniformity (CU) and the distribution uniformity (DU) generally increase with increasing heads and decrease with increasing slope. The coefficient of uniformity generally followed a linear relationship with either head or slope. The CU and DU decrease substantially at submain slopes steeper than 30%. For a level surface, a head differential of 0.5 m does not cause significant change in either CU or DU. For all slopes tested, we found that a head of 3.0 m with respect to the junction of the most upstream lateral may be considered to be recommendable from both hydraulic and practical standpoints. On the basis of the results, appropriate recommendations were formulated to minimize non-uniformity of water distribution under field conditions in sloping drip-irrigated lands.
|Pages:||349 - 356|
|Journal:||Applied Engineering in Agriculture|
hydraulics, irrigation systems, slope, trickle irrigation,water distribution, water management, water use efficiency, waterresource management, Soil Water Management (Irrigation and Drainage)(JJ800) (Revised June 2002) [formerly Soil Water Management]