|Author:||Rajinder, Singh ; Joginder, Singh ; Sanjay, Poonia|
|Book Group Author:||NA|
The introduction of canal irrigation in the early 1960s in Central and Western parts of Haryana State (India) has lead to the rise in water table at the rate of 10 to 30 cm annually during the last three decades resulting in the degradation of 473 400 ha of agricultural land. The canal network irrigation losses, inefficient on-farm irrigation management, inadequate drainage and restricted groundwater pumpage due to its saline, saline-sodic and sodic quality are the major factors responsible for such a phenomenon. The irrigation scenarios were evaluated at the adopted farmers' fields through simulation model SWASALT (Soil Water Atmosphere SALT) using field experimental data (2001-02). The field study was conducted on wheat crop at the six selected farmers' fields in village Kalayat, District Kaithal (Haryana) under shallow water table conditions (1.57 to 1.88 m). The groundwater quality at the experimental sites varied from 1.6 to 6.4 dS/m. The applied model provided all water and salt balance components for the irrigation strategies adopted by the farmers. The water management response indicators (WMRIs), viz., relative evapotranspiration, capillary contribution and percolation index were evaluated using water and salt balance components of each simulation. The model study indicated that the relative evapotranspiration ranged from 0.67 to 0.90 with irrigation and rainfall supply ranging from 29.3 to 39.2 cm. The simulation study further revealed that the reduced irrigation supply at farmers' fields resulted in appreciable capillary contribution (10.93 to 23.35%) to meet the part of crop evapotranspiration. The normal rainfall of the region (400 mm) was not sufficient to leach down the salts brought in by tubewell irrigation and capillary contribution as the solute concentration in the soil profile increased by 7.8 to 20.0% for groundwater with EC>3.0 dS/m. Therefore, the study suggested the regular monitoring of soil salinity with efficient irrigation application considering the increasing leaching requirement for saline groundwater (EC>3.0 dS/m) and adequate surface and sub-surface drainage and sustainable crop production and controlling of waterlogging and salinization.
capillary capacity, evapotranspiration, groundwater,irrigation, irrigation systems, land degradation, leaching, leachingrequirement, percolation, rain, saline sodic soils, salinization,simulation models, soil salinity, soil types, solutes, water balance,water management, water quality, wheat, Haryana, India, Triticum,Triticum aestivum, India, South Asia, Asia, Developing Countries,Commonwealth of Nations, Triticum, Poaceae, Cyperales, monocotyledons,angiosperms, Spermatophyta, plants, eukaryotes, rainfall, saline alkalisoils, water composition and quality, water resource management,watering, Field Crops (FF005) (New March 2000), Plant Water Relations(FF062), Plant Production (FF100), Soil Chemistry and Mineralogy(JJ200), Soil Physics (JJ300), Soil Water Management (Irrigation andDrainage) (JJ800) (Revised June 2002) [formerly Soil Water Management],Mathematics and Statistics (ZZ100)