|Author:||Al-Shdiefat, S. M.|
|Book Group Author:||NA|
Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a major agricultural crop in the Mediterranean basin, where it has been grown for centuries. Its cultivation originated from the eastern part of the Mediterranean, over 6000 years ago. From there, the Phoenicians and successive civilizations spread it to the rest of the Mediterranean region. Jordan is considered a centre of origin for olive cultivation. Today, the country's olive trees cover some 72% (123 000 ha) of the total area planted to fruit trees, representing 36% of the total cultivated area. The two main producing areas are the western mountains (rain-fed), accounting for some 76% of production, and the remainder from the eastern desert area (irrigated). Water-use efficiency (WUE) is defined as the ratio of photosynthesis to water loss due to transpiration. Water productivity is measured by the volume of water used to produce a unit of the product - in this case, a kilogram of olive fruits or olive oil. In general, the lower the water needed per unit of production, the higher the efficiency. Thus, to improve water-use efficiency in olive plantations, the water requirement per unit of olive production should be lowered. In order to maintain soil moisture content at field capacity and thus avoid drought stress conditions during Jordan's olive production season, some 350-400 mm of annual precipitation is required, evenly distributed during the winter season (October-March), is required. In terms of olive genetic resources, the main drought tolerant cultivars are 'Souri', 'Nabali' and 'Rasei'. Efforts will be made to further explore olive diversity so as to develop more wateruse efficient cultivars and thus keep pace with the growth in olive production over the last decade.
acreage, crop yield, cultivars, drought, drought resistance,genetic diversity, olives, plant genetic resources, plant waterrelations, water stress, water use efficiency, Jordan, Olea europaea,West Asia, Asia, Middle East, Developing Countries, Olea, Oleaceae,Scrophulariales, dicotyledons, angiosperms, Spermatophyta, plants,eukaryotes, cultivated varieties, drought tolerance, Oleales,Horticultural Crops (FF003) (New March 2000), Plant Breeding andGenetics (FF020), Plant Water Relations (FF062), Plant Production(FF100), Environmental Tolerance of Plants (FF900), Biological Resources(Plant) (PP720)