|Author:||Vazifedoust, M. ; Dam, J. C. van ; Feddes, R. A. ; Feizi, M.|
|Book Group Author:||NA|
Borkhar district is located in an arid to semi-arid region in Iran and regularly faces widespread drought. Given current water scarcity, the limited available water should be used as efficient and productive as possible. To explore on-farm strategies which result in higher economic gains and water productivity (WP), a physically based agrohydrological model, Soil Water Atmosphere Plant (SWAP), was calibrated and validated using intensive measured data at eight selected farmer fields (wheat, fodder maize, sunflower and sugar beet) in the Borkhar district, Iran during the agricultural year 2004-2005. The WP values for the main crops were computed using the SWAP simulated water balance components, i.e. transpiration T, evapotranspiration ET, irrigation I, and the marketable yield YM in terms in terms of YMT-1, YM ET-1 and YM I-1. The average WP, expressed as $ T-1 (US $ m-3) was 0.19 for wheat, 0.5 for fodder maize, 0.06 for sunflower and 0.38 for sugar beet. This indicated that fodder maize provides the highest economic benefit in the Borkhar irrigation district. Soil evaporation caused the average WP values, expressed as YM ET-1 (kg m-3), to be significantly lower than the average WP, expressed as YM T-1, i.e. about 27% for wheat, 11% for fodder maize, 12% for sunflower and 0.18 for sugar beet. Furthermore, due to percolation from root zone and stored moisture content in the root zone, the average WP values, expressed as YM I-1 (kg m-3), had a 24-42% reduction as compared with WP, expressed as YM ET-1. The results indicated that during the limited water supply period, on-farm strategies like deficit irrigation scheduling and reduction of the cultivated area can result in higher economic gains. Improved irrigation practices in terms of irrigation timing and amount, increased WP in terms of YM I-1 (kg m-3) by a factor of 1.5 for wheat and maize, 1.3 for sunflower and 1.1 for sugar beet. Under water shortage conditions, reduction of the cultivated area yielded higher water productivity values as compared to deficit irrigation.
|Pages:||89 - 102|
|Journal:||Agricultural Water Management|
arid zones, crop yield, drought, evapotranspiration, foddercrops, irrigation, irrigation scheduling, maize, plant water relations,productivity, roots, semiarid zones, simulation models, soil watercontent, sugarbeet, sunflowers, transpiration, water potential, watersupply, water use efficiency, wheat, Iran, Beta vulgaris var.saccharifera, Helianthus annuus, Triticum, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays,Beta vulgaris, Beta, Chenopodiaceae, Caryophyllales, dicotyledons,angiosperms, Spermatophyta, plants, eukaryotes, Helianthus, Asteraceae,Asterales, West Asia, Asia, Middle East, Developing Countries, ThresholdCountries, Triticum, Poaceae, Cyperales, monocotyledons, Zea, aridregions, corn, water supplies, watering, Field Crops (FF005) (New March2000), Forage and Fodder Crops (FF007) (New March 2000), Plant WaterRelations (FF062), Plant Production (FF100), Soil Water Management(Irrigation and Drainage) (JJ800) (Revised June 2002) [formerly SoilWater Management], Mathematics and Stati