|Author:||Abou Kheira, Abdrabbo A.|
|Book Group Author:||NA|
Precision irrigation management and scheduling, as well as developing site- and cultivar-specific crop coefficient (K c), and yield response factor to water deficit (ky) are very important parameters for efficient use of limited water resources. This study investigated the effect of deficit irrigation, applied at different growth stages of peanut with sprinkler irrigation in sandy soil, on field peanut evapotranspiration (ETc), yield and yield components, and water use efficiencies (IWUE and WUE). Also, yield response factor to water deficit (ky), and site- and cultivar-specific K c were developed. Four treatments were imposed to deficit irrigation during late vegetative and early flowering, late flowering and early pegging, pegging, and pod formation growth stages of peanut, and compared with full irrigation in the course of the season (control). A soil water balance equation was used to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ETc). The results revealed that maximum seasonal ETc was 488mm recorded with full irrigation treatment. The maximum value of K c (0.96) occurred at the fifth week after sowing, this value was less than the generic values listed in FAO-33 and -56 (1.03 and 1.15), respectively. Dry kernels yield among treatments differed by 41.4%. Deficit irrigation significantly affected yields, where kernels yield decreased by 28, 39, 36, and 41% in deficit-irrigated late vegetative and early flowering, late flowering and early pegging, pegging, and pod formation growth stages, respectively, compared with full irrigation treatment. Peanut yields increased linearly with seasonal ETc (R ℗ø =0.94) and ETc/ETp (R ℗ø =0.92) (ETp=ETc with no water stress). The yield response factor (ky), which indicates the relative reduction in yield to relative reduction in ETc, averaged 2.9, was higher than the 0.7 value reported by Doorenbos and Kassam [Doorenbos, J., Kassam, A.H., 1979. Yield response to water. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 33, Rome, Italy, 193 pp.], the high ky value reflects the great sensitivity of peanut (cv. Giza 5) to water deficit. WUE values varied considerably with deficit irrigation treatments, averaging 6.1 and 4.5kgha⁻℗£ mm⁻℗£ (dry-mass basis) for pods and kernels, respectively. Differences in WUE between the driest and wettest treatment were 31.3 and 31.3% for pods and kernels, respectively. Deficit irrigation treatments, however, impacted IWUE much more than WUE. Differences in IWUE between the driest and wettest treatment were 33.9 and 33.9% for pods and kernels, respectively. The results revealed that better management of available soil water in the root zone in the course of the season, as well as daily and seasonal accurate estimation of ETc can be an effective way for best irrigation scheduling and water allocation, maximizing yield, and optimizing economic return.
|Pages:||1409 - 1420|
|Journal:||Agricultural water management|
soil water deficit, sprinkler irrigation, developmentalstages, water use efficiency, crop production, deficit irrigation,irrigation management, Arachis hypogaea, peanuts