|Book Title:||Land and Water Management: Decision Tools and Practices, Vols 1 and 2|
|Book Group Author:||NA|
Globally, competition for fresh water from different sectors of economy may reduce water allocation to agriculture despite need to grow more food. Water supply to agriculture may be augmented by use of low quality waters, the availability of which may increase with time and their disposal through reuse in agriculture seems to be an attractive proposition. Based on multi-location research conducted in India, some of the issues relating to drainage effluents and municipal wastewaters, the two important sources of low quality waters, are addressed. In India, use of saline effluents, generated by subsurface drainage projects of different sizes, has proved to be a viable option for irrigation of salt tolerant crops. The monsoon climate, which helps in leaching of soil profile, promotes the possibility of reuse of saline waters. Municipal sewage water is a preferred and assured source of marginal water. In India, the wastewater generated by organized sector exceeds 15 million m(3)/day and the estimated nitrogen, phosphorus and potash (NPK) available from municipal sewage water are in the order of 80, 20 and 60 million tonnes, respectively. The technology of use of municipal wastewater revolves around level of treatment, crop selection and nutrient management. Municipal sewage waters in India are subjected to only primary treatment or no treatment before their reuse in irrigation. Indian experiences suggest that manipulation in agronomic practices, use of subsurface drip, mixing of waste water with irrigation water enhance the possibility of use of such waters. Intensive multi-location studies are still needed to revise the guidelines. Implementation of technological interventions on a large scale calls for formulating appropriate policies at the state and national level that consider wastewater as a part of the total water resource to be beneficially used.
|Organization:||China Agr niv; Natl Ctr Efficient Irrigat Engn & Technol Res; CIGR Sect I Land & Water Engn|
|Publisher:||CHINA AGRICULTURAL UNIV|
saline effluents; salt balance; monsoon; pre-application treatment
|Source:||Web of Science|