|Author:||Li, JiaMin ; Inanaga, S. ; Li, ZhaoHu ; Eneji, A. E.|
|Book Group Author:||NA|
In the North China Plain (NCP), more than 70% of irrigation water resources are used for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). A crucial target of groundwater conservation and sustainable crop production is to develop water-saving agriculture, particularly for winter wheat. The purpose of this study was to optimize irrigation scheduling for high wheat yield and water use efficiency (WUE). Field experiments were conducted for three growing seasons at the Wuqiao Experiment Station of China Agriculture University. Eleven, four and six irrigation treatments, consisting of frequency of irrigation (zero to four times) and timing (at raising, jointing, booting, flowering and milking stage), were employed for 1994/95, 1995/96 and 1996/97 seasons, respectively. Available water content (AWC), rain events, soil water use (SWU), evapotranspiration (ET) and grain yield were recorded, and water use efficiency (WUE) and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) were calculated. The results showed that after a 75-mm pre-sowing irrigation, soil water content and AWC in the root zone of a 2-m soil profile during sowing were 31.1% (or 90.7% of field capacity) and 16.1%, respectively. Rainfall events were variable and showed a limited impact on AWC. The AWC decreased significantly with the growth of wheat. At the jointing stage no water deficits occurred for all treatments, at the flowering stage water deficits were found only in the rain-fed treatment, and at harvest all treatments had moderate to severe soil water deficits. The SWU in the 2-m soil profile was negatively related to the irrigation water volume, i.e. applying 75 mm irrigation reduced SWU by 28.2 mm. Regression analyses showed that relationships between ET and grain yield or WUE could be described by quadratic functions. Grain yield and WUE reached their maximum values of 7423 kg/ha and 1.645 kg/m3 at the ET rate of 509 and 382 mm, respectively. IWUE was negatively correlated with irrigated water volume. From the above results, three irrigation schedules: (1) pre-sowing irrigation only, (2) pre-sowing irrigation+irrigation at jointing or booting stage, and (3) pre-sowing irrigation+irrigations at jointing and flowering stages were identified and recommended for practical winter wheat production in the NCP.
|Pages:||8 - 23|
|Journal:||Agricultural Water Management|
crop growth stage, crop yield, evapotranspiration,frequency, irrigation scheduling, optimization, plant water relations,soil water content, sowing date, water deficit, water use efficiency,wheat, winter wheat, China, Hebei, Triticum, Triticum aestivum,Triticum, Poaceae, Cyperales, monocotyledons, angiosperms,Spermatophyta, plants, eukaryotes, East Asia, Asia, DevelopingCountries, Northern China, China, Field Crops (FF005) (New March 2000),Plant Water Relations (FF062), Plant Production (FF100), Soil Physics(JJ300), Soil Water Management (Irrigation and Drainage) (JJ800)(Revised June 2002) [formerly Soil Water Management]