|Author:||Robinson, J. B.|
|Book Group Author:||NA|
Two strategies are available for dealing with vineyard developments on saline and/or sodic soils. It is possible either to rehabilitate the soils in the root zone by leaching alone (salinity, boron) or together with gypsum applications (sodicity). Alternately, it is possible to manage the vineyard floor by mounding in order to live above the hazardous horizon (e.g., sodic zones, saline zones, or those with high boron). Drip or microsprinkler irrigation must be carefully scheduled to avoid perched water tables and keep salinity from concentrating in the root zone in either case. Evaluation of the environmental conditions at the site helps when deciding the best approach to take in salinity or sodicity management. In arid or semiarid areas, provision must be made for application of sufficient irrigation water to allow an appropriate leaching fraction. In more humid climates, natural rainfall can provide all or some of the leaching required. In either case, subsoil conditions must allow drainage. There must also be somewhere safe for the disposal of the salt, sodium-, or boron-rich drainage, or salinization of the root zone in parts of the landscape can be a problem. Soil moisture monitoring equipment and shallow test wells or piezometers can indicate periods of either waterlogging or water stress, both of which can add to salinity stress on vines and must be avoided. Soil sampling for chemical and physical analysis is important as an aid to monitoring the effectiveness of leaching and amendment programs. A thoughtful sampling strategy is needed, particularly in vineyards irrigated with drippers or microjets, because salt redistribution within the root zone is complex.
arid zones, boron, drainage, grapes, gypsum, irrigationscheduling, leaching, plant water relations, rain, roots, saline soils,salinity, semiarid zones, sodic soils, soil chemical properties, soilphysical properties, soil water, sprinkler irrigation, trickleirrigation, water stress, waterlogging, Vitis, Vitis vinifera, Vitis,Vitidaceae, Rhamnales, dicotyledons, angiosperms, Spermatophyta, plants,Horticultural Crops (FF003) (New March 2000), Plant Water Relations(FF062), Environmental Tolerance of Plants (FF900), Soil Chemistry andMineralogy (JJ200), Soil Physics (JJ300), Fertilizers and otherAmendments (JJ700), Soil Water Management (Irrigation and Drainage)(JJ800) (Revised June 2002) [formerly Soil Water Management]