|Author:||Behera, U. K. ; Ruwali, K. N. ; Verma, P. K. ; Pandey,H. N.|
|Book Group Author:||NA|
A field experiment was conducted during the winter seasons of 1998/99 and 1999/2000 in Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India, to evaluate the performance of macaroni or durum (T. durum) and bread or aestivum wheat (T. aestivum) under varying irrigation levels (trial 1) and schedules (trial 2), under limited water availability situations in central India. Trial 1 comprised 5 irrigation levels (4 during 1998/99): come-up irrigation given immediately after sowing (CUI); CUI+crown-root initiation (CRI); CUI+CRI+flowering (FL); CUI+CRI+late jointing (LJ)+milk (ML); CUI+CRI+late tillering (LT)+LJ+FL+ML+dough (D) in the main plot, and wheat cultivars consisting of durum (HI 8498, GW 1139, RAJ 1555, PWD 273 and HI 8381) and aestivum (NIAW 200, GW 273, LOK 1, GW 303, HI 1479 and HI 1077) cultivars in the subplot. Trial 2 comprised 5 irrigation treatments: CUI; CUI+CRI; CUI+LT; CUI+LJ; and CUI+CRI+LJ in the main plot and wheat cultivars consisting of durum (HI 8498, HD 4672, Bechana Dwarf and Bechana Tall) and aestivum (HW 2004, LOK 1, Nesser Dwarf and Nesser Tall) cultivars in the subplot. The performance of wheat under varying irrigation levels revealed that the grain yield of durum and aestivum cultivars increased significantly with increasing levels of irrigation and the maximum grain yield of 5397 and 5960 kg/ha during 1998/99 and 1999/2000, respectively, was obtained when 6 irrigations (in addition to CUI) were applied based on physiological growth stages. Durum wheat cultivars performed better than aestivum wheat with a yield advantage of 4.5-8.1% at all levels of irrigations except at CUI and CUI+CRI, where yield levels of both wheats were at par. The effective tillers per plant were 55 and 17% higher in aestivum than in durum, while 1000-grain weight was 22 and 14.2% higher in durum over aestivum during 1998/99 and 1999/2000, respectively. Significant increase in grain yield with an advantage of 12.4 and 22.5% was recorded by shifting/delaying irrigation at CRI to LT and LJ, respectively. The maximum grain yield of 3350 kg/ha and water use efficiency (WUE) of 11.72 kg/ha-mm were obtained when 1 irrigation (in addition to CUI) was applied at LJ. The durum cultivars HI 8498 and HD 4672 gave the maximum grain yield of 4046 and 3968 kg/ha, respectively, when 2 irrigations were applied at CRI and LJ in addition to CUI. The maximum WUE of 12.15 kg/ha-mm was recorded in LOK 1, followed by HI 8498 (12.06 kg/ha-mm) and HD 4672 (11.85 kg/ha-mm).
|Pages:||518 - 525|
|Journal:||Indian Journal of Agronomy|
crop yield, cultivars, irrigation, irrigation scheduling,plant water relations, seed weight, soil types, tillers, Vertisols,water use efficiency, wheat, yield components, India, Madhya Pradesh,Triticum, Triticum aestivum, Triticum durum, Poaceae, Cyperales,monocotyledons, angiosperms, Spermatophyta, plants, eukaryotes,Triticum, South Asia, Asia, Developing Countries, Commonwealth ofNations, India, cultivated varieties, watering, Field Crops (FF005) (NewMarch 2000), Plant Breeding and Genetics (FF020), Plant Water Relations(FF062), Plant Production (FF100), Soil Water Management (Irrigation andDrainage) (JJ800) (Revised June 2002) [formerly Soil Water Management]