|Author:||Peng, S. ; Bouman, B. A. M.|
|Book Group Author:||NA|
Increasing yield potential of lowland rice remains to be the top priority in rice genetic-improvement programmes, because rice farmers' primary concern is still grain yield and world rice production has to increase by 1% annually in the next 20 years to meet the demand of the growing population. Improvements in yield potential of irrigated lowland rice were achieved under ample supply of water and nutrients. Water use efficiency (WUE) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) were seldom included in the breeding objectives for irrigated lowland rice. Scarcity of freshwater resources has threatened the production of the flood-irrigated rice crop, and excessive use of N fertilizer is causing environmental concerns. We have to increase lowland rice yield with less water and N. Newly developed crop management strategies have proven to be effective in increasing WUE and NUE. Several water-saving technologies such as alternate wetting and drying (AWD) and aerobic rice system have been developed to increase the water productivity of rice. However, yield penalty occurred when these water-saving technologies were practised with current varieties. New varieties have to be developed to reduce the yield loss under AWD and aerobic rice system in order to increase WUE further. Direct selection for WUE under flood-irrigated lowland conditions may have a negative impact on grain yield under water-saving strategies. Optimizing the timing and rate of N application to synchronize supply and demand of N by the crop has resulted in a great reduction in fertilizer-N input without yield loss and greater NUE. Genetic improvement of NUE has not been achieved in rice. Genotypic variation in NUE has been reported in many studies. Plant traits that are associated with high grain yield and high NUE should be identified so that breeders are able to use these traits easily as selection criteria in the breeding programme to develop N-efficient varieties without sacrificing rice yield potential. New breeding techniques such as development of F1 hybrids, marker-aided selection, transformation and genetic engineering should be combined effectively with the empirical breeding method in order to increase rice grain yield with less water and N.
application rates, breeding programmes, crop yield, geneticimprovement, genetic variation, genotypes, new cultivars, nitrogenfertilizers, plant water relations, rice, selection, use efficiency,water use efficiency, Oryza, Oryza sativa, Oryza, Poaceae, Cyperales,monocotyledons, angiosperms, Spermatophyta, plants, eukaryotes, breedingprograms, genetic variability, genotypic variability, genotypicvariation, paddy, Field Crops (FF005) (New March 2000), Plant Breedingand Genetics (FF020), Plant Nutrition (FF061), Plant Water Relations(FF062), Plant Production (FF100), Fertilizers and other Amendments(JJ700)