|Author:||Thind, H. S. ; Aujla, M. S. ; Buttar, G. S.|
|Book Group Author:||NA|
Field experiments were conducted for 2 years to investigate the effects of various levels of nitrogen (N) and methods of cotton planting on yield, agronomic efficiency of N (AEN) and water use efficiency (WUE) in cotton irrigated through surface drip irrigation at Bathinda situated in semi-arid region of northwest India. Three levels of N (100, 75 and 50% of recommended N, 75 kg ha-1) were tested under drip irrigation in comparison to 75 kg of N ha-1 in check-basin. The three methods of planting tried were; normal sowing of cotton with row to row spacing of 67.5 cm (NS), normal paired row sowing with row to row spacing of 35 and 100 cm alternately (NP) and dense paired row sowing with row to row spacing of 35 and 55 cm alternately resulting in total number rows and plants to be 1.5 times (DP) than NS and NP. In NS there was one lateral along each row, but in paired sowings there was one lateral between each pair of rows. Consequently the number of laterals and quantity of water applied was 50 and 75% in NP and DP, respectively, as compared with NS in which irrigation water applied was equivalent to check-basin. Drip irrigation under NS resulted in an increase of 258 and 453 kg ha-1 seed cotton yield than check-basin during first and second year, respectively, when same quantity of water and N was applied. Drip irrigation under dense paired sowing (DP) in which the quantity of irrigation water applied was 75% as compared with NS, further increased the yield by 84 and 101 kg ha-1 than NS during first and second year, respectively. Drip irrigation under NP, in which the quantity of water applied and number of laterals used were 50% as compared with drip under NS, resulted in a reduction in seed cotton yield of 257 and 112 kg ha-1 than NS during first and second year, respectively. However, the yield obtained in NP under drip irrigation was equivalent to yield obtained in NS under check-basin during first year but 341 kg ha-1 higher yield was obtained during second year. The decrease in N applied, irrespective of methods of planting, caused a significant decline in seed cotton yield during both the years. Water use efficiency (WUE) under drip irrigation increased from 1.648 to 1.847 and from 0.983 to 1.615 kg ha-1 mm-1 during first and second year, respectively, when the same quantity of N and water was applied. The WUE further increased to 2.125 and 1.788 kg ha-1 mm-1 under DP during first and second year, respectively. The agronomic efficiency of nitrogen was higher in drip than check-basin during both the years when equal N was applied. The WUE decreased with decrease in the rate of N applied under fertigation but reverse was true for AEN. It is evident that DP under drip irrigation resulted in higher seed cotton yield, WUE and AEN than NS and also saved 25% irrigation water as well as cost of laterals.
|Pages:||25 - 34|
|Journal:||Agricultural Water Management|
application rates, basin irrigation, cotton, crop yield,irrigation, nitrogen fertilizers, plant water relations, sowing, trickleirrigation, water use efficiency, India, Punjab (India), Gossypium,Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypium, Malvaceae, Malvales, dicotyledons,angiosperms, Spermatophyta, plants, eukaryotes, South Asia, Asia,Developing Countries, Commonwealth of Nations, India, countries, checkbasin irrigation, seed sowing, watering, Field Crops (FF005) (New March2000), Plant Water Relations (FF062), Plant Production (FF100),Fertilizers and other Amendments (JJ700), Soil Water Management(Irrigation and Drainage) (JJ800) (Revised June 2002) [formerly SoilWater Management]