Rice production in water-scarce environments.

Book Title: NA
Year Published: 2003
Month Published: NA
Author: Tuong, T. P. ; Bouman, B. A. M.
Book Group Author: NA

Rice production in Asia needs to increase to feed a growing population. Though a complete assessment of the level of water scarcity in Asian rice production is still lacking, there are signs that declining quality of water and declining availability of water resources are threatening the sustainability of the irrigated rice-based production system. Drought is one of the main constraints for high yield in rain-fed rice. Exploring ways to produce more rice with less water is essential for food security and sustaining environmental health in Asia. This chapter reviews the International Rice Research Institute's integrated approach, using genetics, breeding and integrated resource management to increase rice yield and to reduce water demand for rice production. Water-saving irrigation, such as saturated-soil culture and alternate wetting and drying, can drastically cut down the unproductive water outflows and increase water productivity. However, these technologies mostly lead to some yield decline in the current lowland rice varieties. Other new approaches are being researched to increase water productivity without sacrifice in yield. These include the incorporation of the C4 photosynthetic pathway into rice to increase rice yield per unit water transpired, the use of molecular biotechnology to enhance drought-stress tolerance and the development of aerobic rice, to achieve high and sustainable yields in non-flooded soil. Through the adoption of water-saving irrigation technologies, rice land will shift away from being continuously anaerobic to being partly or even completely aerobic. These shifts will have profound changes in water conservation, soil organic matter turnover, nutrient dynamics, carbon sequestration, soil productivity, weed ecology and greenhouse gas emissions. Whereas some of these changes can be perceived as positive, e.g. water conservation and decreased methane emission, some are perceived as negative, e.g. release of nitrous oxide from the soil and decline in soil organic matter. The challenge will be to develop effective integrated natural resource management interventions, which allow profitable rice cultivation with increased soil aeration, while maintaining the productivity, environmental services and sustainability of rice-based ecosystems.

Pages: NA
URL: http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/Publications/CABI_Publications/CA_CABI_Series/Water_Productivity/Unprotected/0851996698ch4.pdf
Volume: NA
Number: NA
Journal: NA
Journal ISO: NA
Organization: NA
Publisher: NA
ISSN: 0851996698

air pollutants, air pollution, carbon pathways, carbonsequestration, crop production, crop yield, drought resistance,emission, genetically engineered organisms, genetics, greenhouse gases,IRRI, irrigation, methane, nitrous oxide, photosynthesis, plantbreeding, plant water relations, pollution control, reviews, rice, soilfertility, soil organic matter, stress, stress response, transgenicplants, water conservation, water management, water resources, waterstress, water supply, water use, water use efficiency, weeds, Asia,Oryza, Oryza sativa, plants, Poaceae, Cyperales, monocotyledons,angiosperms, Spermatophyta, plants, eukaryotes, Oryza, atmosphericpollution, carbon assimilation, carbon dioxide fixation, droughttolerance, genetically engineered plants, genetically modified plants,GMOs, International Rice Research Institute, organic matter in soil,paddy, water resource management, water shortages, water supplies,watering, Field Crops (FF005) (New March 2000), Plant Breeding

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