|Author:||Kukal, S. S. ; Hira, G. S. ; Sidhu, A. S.|
|Book Group Author:||NA|
About half of the total fresh water used for irrigation in Asia is used for rice production. Decreasing water resources and increasing water costs necessitates increasing water use efficiency for rice. The most common method of irrigation in northwestern India is through alternate wetting and drying with a fixed irrigation interval, irrespective of soil type and climatic demand resulting in over-irrigation or under-irrigation under different soil and weather situations. Soil matric potential may be an ideal criterion for irrigation, since variable atmospheric evaporativity, soil texture, cultural practices and water management affect rice irrigation water requirements. A 4-year field study was conducted to assess the feasibility of rice irrigation scheduling on the basis of soil matric potential and to determine the optimum matric potential so as to optimize irrigation water without any adverse effect on the yield. The treatments included scheduling irrigation to rice with tensiometers installed at 15-20 cm soil depth at five levels of soil matric suction viz. 80, 120, 160, 200 and 240±20 cm, in addition to the recommended practice of alternate wetting and drying with an interval of 2 days after complete infiltration of ponded water. The grain yield of rice remained unaffected up to soil moisture suction of 160±20 cm each year. Increasing soil matric suction to 200 and 240±20 cm decreased rice grain yield non-significantly by 0-7% and 2-15%, respectively, over different years compared to the recommended practice of the 2-day interval for scheduling irrigation. Irrigation at 160±20 cm soil matric suction helped save 30-35% irrigation water compared to that used with the 2-day interval irrigation. With a soil matric potential irrigation criterion the total amount of irrigation water used was a function of the number of rainy days and evaporation during the rice season.
|Pages:||153 - 159|
climate, crop yield, irrigation, irrigation scheduling,matric potential, plant water relations, rice, soil types, soil water,water use efficiency, weather, India, Indian Punjab, Oryza, Oryzasativa, South Asia, Asia, Developing Countries, Commonwealth of Nations,India, Oryza, Poaceae, Cyperales, monocotyledons, angiosperms,Spermatophyta, plants, Field Crops (FF005) (New March 2000), Plant WaterRelations (FF062), Plant Production (FF100), Soil Physics (JJ300), SoilWater Management (Irrigation and Drainage) (JJ800) (Revised June 2002)[formerly Soil Water Management], Meteorology and Climate (PP500)