|Author:||Rinaldi, M. ; Vonella, A. V.|
|Book Group Author:||NA|
The Apulia region in Southern Italy is an important area for sugar beet cultivation. It is characterised by clay soils and a hot-arid and winter-temperate climate. The capability of sugar beet to exploit solar radiation, water use and irrigation supply in root yield, total dry matter and sucrose production was studied and analysed in relation to two experimental factors: sowing date - autumn (October-December) and spring (March) - and irrigation regime - optimal and reduced (respectively with 100 and 60% of actual evapotranspiration). Data sets from three experiments of spring sowing and three of autumn sowing were used to calculate: (1) water use efficiency in the conversion in dry matter (WUEdm, plant dry matter at harvest versus seasonal water use ratio), in sucrose (WUEsuc, sucrose yield versus seasonal water use ratio); (2) irrigation water use efficiency in the conversion in dry matter (IRRWUEdm), in sucrose (IRRWUEsuc) and fresh root yield (IRRWUEfr); and (3) radiation use efficiency (RUE, plant dry matter during the crop cycle and at harvest versus intercepted solar radiation ratio). Autumnal beet was more productive than spring for fresh root, plant total dry matter, sucrose yield and concentration; also WUEsuc and IRRWUEs were higher in the autumnal sugar beet, but no difference was observed in WUEdm (on average, 2.83 g of dry matter kg-1 of water used). An average saving of about 26% of seasonal irrigation supply (equivalent to about 100 mm) was measured in the three years with the earliest sowing time. The optimal irrigation regime produced higher root yield, plant total dry matter and sucrose yield than the reduced one; on the contrary the IRRWUEfr and IRRWUEdm were higher in the reduced irrigation strategy. WUEs and IRRUWEs correlated positively with the length of crop cycle, expressed in growth degree days and, in particular, to the length of the period from full soil cover canopy to crop harvest, the period when plant photosynthetic activity and sucrose accumulation are at maximum rates. Seasonal RUE was higher in the spring than in the autumn sowing (1.14 µg J-1 versus 1.00 µg J-1). The RUE values during the crop cycle reached the maximum in the period around complete canopy soil cover. The results showed the importance for better use of water and radiation resources of autumnal sowing time and of reduced irrigation regime in sugar beet cropped in a Mediterranean environment.
|Pages:||103 - 114|
|Journal:||Field Crops Research|
autumn, climatic seasons, crop yield, dry matter,irrigation, plant water relations, solar radiation, sowing date, spring,sucrose, sugarbeet, water use efficiency, yield components, Apulia,Italy, Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera, Italy, Southern Europe, Europe,Mediterranean Region, Developed Countries, European Union Countries,OECD Countries, Beta vulgaris, Beta, Chenopodiaceae, Caryophyllales,dicotyledons, angiosperms, Spermatophyta, plants, Field Crops (FF005)(New March 2000), Plant Water Relations (FF062), Plant Production(FF100), Soil Water Management (Irrigation and Drainage) (JJ800)(Revised June 2002) [formerly Soil Water Management]