|Author:||Isbérie, C. ; Valancogne, C. ; Cabibel, B. ; Paço, T. A.|
|Book Group Author:||NA|
This study was conducted to develop and test a method of tensiometric irrigation scheduling and to verify its applicability to complementary irrigation of cherry orchard. The decreasing water percolation below the root zone by adjusting the daily irrigation application according to the tree water consumption was also studied. To help the farmer in minimizing the losses of water under the DIZ (dripper-influenced soil zone), the idea to monitor water balance in the DIZ and evaluate the amount of water present at each moment of the day was considered. Then changing the hour to begin irrigation each day was studied to determine the effects on water use and production. The experiment was carried out near Bonnieux, France, with Mediterranean climate, on 15 years old Bigarreau Napoleon cherry (Prunus avium). The soil was sandy loam. Irrigation lay-out and scheduling are given. Soil water content was measured by neutron probe in the DIZ, and trunk sap flow was measured using heat dissipation Granier method. Simulations were done by assuming that sap flow remained unchanged when the initiation time of irrigation was modified. The same simulation was done using results of a peach orchard in Portugal, with sandy loam soil. For the cherry orchard, maps of the dynamics of volumetric water content in the row were obtained every two weeks from neutron probe measurements. This verified the drying of the soil zone around the DIZ, and the maintenance of the wetted zone by irrigation within the DIZ, which had a diameter of 50-70 cm. Crop water use from the whole soil and subsoil around the DIZ represented less than 7% of the crop water consumption. Soil drying was observed during water application with a 4-h delay after starting irrigation until the moment where the balance of irrigation minus sap flow becomes positive. For a peach orchard, the water requirements were 1.9 times higher than for the cherry orchard. This gave a rate of 56 litre/day per tree, to compare with 130 litre/day per tree for two drippers in the cherry orchard. The method helps the farmer to choose the order to irrigate fields with different soils and allows the limitation of deep percolation under the dripper.
|Pages:||333 - 340|
cherries, climate, coarse textured soils, crop production,diurnal variation, evapotranspiration, irrigation, irrigation equipment,irrigation requirements, irrigation scheduling, irrigation systems,leaching, loam soils, measurement, Mediterranean climate, methodology,neutron probes, orchard soils, orchards, peaches, percolation,permeability, plant water relations, root zone flux, roots, sandy loamsoils, sandy soils, sap flow, simulation, soil types, soil watercontent, tensiometers, trickle irrigation, water balance, water content,water requirements, water use, water use efficiency, France, Portugal,Prunus, Prunus avium, Prunus persica, Rosaceae, Rosales, dicotyledons,angiosperms, Spermatophyta, plants, eukaryotes, Prunus, Western Europe,Europe, Mediterranean Region, Developed Countries, European UnionCountries, OECD Countries, Southern Europe, methods, metrology, sapascent, water consumption, watering, Horticultural Crops (FF003) (NewMarch 2000), Plant Water Relations (FF