|Author:||Razavi, J. ; Mirlohi, A. ; Mokhtari, S.|
|Book Group Author:||NA|
Dry land regions of the world face many difficulties in providing adequate water for farming and sustainable food production. Irrigation water as a valuable commodity has gained more importance in light of a fast growing population and added demand for more food stuff in developing countries. Therefore, measures must be taken to utilize available water with highest efficiency considering rapid water resources depletion. Iran is located on the arid belt of the earth and its average rainfall is about 150 mm annually. The population has grown twofold in the past 25 years and, thus, demands for food and pressure on natural resources has increased dramatically. This study was done in central province of Isfahan on a clay loam soil to determine the effect of the returning crop residue to soil on soil water infiltration rate, crop growth and yield and soil physical properties. Treatments chosen for this study basically followed those practiced by local farmers which consisted of returning and not returning the residue to the soil. Predominant practice in Isfahan province by farmers is to burn the residue after harvest or to remove it completely to feed to their animals. Treatments, therefore, consisted of burning (B), total removal (R), returning the residue to soil by plowing accompanied by urea fertilizer (Pu), with manure (Pm), and with no fertilizer of any form (P). A completely randomized block design was used with three replications. The cropping system consisted of planting barley in fall and shredding its residue after harvest for returning to soil and corn as a forage crop planted in early summer in a continuous pattern of crop rotation for three years. Data analysis indicated that water infiltration was significantly different among treatments with infiltration rates being highest for residue return to soil accompanied with urea. Higher water infiltration with increased water holding capacities generally resulted in higher crop yield for corn crop. Average yield for the treatment of residue return with urea was about 140 metric tons ha-1 compared to average yield of 70 metric tons ha-1 in Isfahan province, Iran. The results generally indicate that return of crop residue to soil in arid and semi-arid regions could contribute to better utilization of irrigation water, increased water consumption efficiency by crop and diminish soil degradation and erosion in the long run.
|Pages:||OP - 1121|
|Journal:||Agricultural and biosystems engineering for a sustainableworld. International Conference on Agricultural Engineering,Hersonissos, Crete, Greece, 23-25 June, 2008|
barley, burning, clay loam soils, crop residues, crop yield,infiltration, maize, manures, plant water relations, removal, rotations,soil physical properties, soil types, urea, water use efficiency, Iran,Hordeum vulgare, Zea mays, Hordeum, Poaceae, Cyperales, monocotyledons,angiosperms, Spermatophyta, plants, eukaryotes, West Asia, Asia, MiddleEast, Developing Countries, Threshold Countries, Zea, corn, croprotation, flaming, physical properties of soil, rotational cropping,Horticultural Crops (FF003) (New March 2000), Plant Water Relations(FF062), Plant Production (FF100), Soil Physics (JJ300), Fertilizers andother Amendments (JJ700), Soil Management (JJ900), Plant Wastes (XX200)