|Author:||Gan, Y. ; Basnyat, P. ; McDonald, C.L. ; Campbell, C.A. ; Liu, L.|
|Book Group Author:||NA|
Oilseed and pulse crops have been increasingly used to replace conventional summer fallow and diversify cropping systems in northern high latitude areas. The knowledge of water use (WU) and its distribution profile in the soil is essential for optimizing cropping systems aimed at improving water use efficiency (WUE). This study characterized water use and distribution profile for pulse and oilseed crops compared to spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a semiarid environment. Three oilseeds [canola (Brassica napus L.), mustard (Brassica juncea L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)], three pulses [chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), dry pea (Pisum sativum L.) and lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)], and spring wheat were seeded in removable 100cm deepx15cm diameter lysimeters placed in an Aridic Haploboroll soil, in southwest Saskatchewan in 2006 and 2007. Crops were studied under rainfed and irrigated conditions where lysimeters were removed and sampled for plant biomass and WU at various soil depths. Wheat yields were greater than pulse crop yields which were greater than oilseed yields, and WUE averaged 4.08kgha⁻℗£ mm⁻℗£ for pulse crops, 3.64kgha⁻℗£ mm⁻℗£ for oilseeds, and ranged between 5.5 and 7.0kgha⁻℗£ mm⁻℗£ for wheat. Wheat used water faster than pulse and oilseed crops with crop growth. Pulse crops extracted water mostly from the upper 60cm soil depths, and left more water unused in the profile at maturity compared to oilseeds or wheat. Among the three pulses, lentil used the least amount of water and appeared to have a shallower rooting depth than chickpea and dry pea. Soil WU and distribution profile under canola and mustard were generally similar; both using more water than flax. Differences in WU and distribution profile were similar for crops grown under rainfall and irrigation conditions. A deep rooting crop grown after pulses may receive more benefits from water conservation in the soil profile than when grown after oilseed or wheat. Alternating pulse crops with oilseeds or wheat in a well-planned crop sequence may improve WUE for the entire cropping systems in semiarid environments.
|Pages:||337 - 348|
|Journal:||Agricultural water management|
spring wheat, crop yield, Lens culinaris, Cicer arietinum,Pisum sativum, rain, cropping sequence, biomass, water use efficiency,irrigated conditions, lysimeters, semiarid zones, semiarid soils,oilseed plants, plant-water relations, water use, summer, Brassicajuncea, Linum usitatissimum, Brassica napus, wheat, Triticum aestivum,Saskatchewan